Tutkimuksia matkapuhelinten käytön vaikutuksista terveyteen


Coureau G, Bouvier G, Lebailly P, et al. Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study. Occup Environ Med 2014;71:514-22.


The carcinogenic effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in humans remains controversial. However, it has been suggested that they could be involved in the aetiology of some types of brain tumours.
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to analyse the association between mobile phone exposure and primary central nervous system tumours (gliomas and meningiomas) in adults.
METHODS: CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004-2006. Data about mobile phone use were collected through a detailed questionnaire delivered in a face-to-face manner. Conditional logistic regression for matched sets was used to estimate adjusted ORs and 95% CIs.
RESULTS: A total of 253 gliomas, 194 meningiomas and 892 matched controls selected from the local electoral rolls were analysed. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users (OR=1.24; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.77 for gliomas, OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.34 for meningiomas). However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration (≥896 h, OR=2.89; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.93 for gliomas; OR=2.57; 95% CI 1.02 to 6.44 for meningiomas) and number of calls for gliomas (≥18 360 calls, OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.31). Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.
CONCLUSIONS: These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.


Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KF. Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. Int J Oncol 2013;43:1036-44

We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.


Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Int J Oncol 2013;43:1833-45.

Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.


Guxens M, van Eijsden M, Vermeulen R, et al. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children. J Epidemiol Community Health 2013;67:432-8.

BACKGROUND: A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5.

METHODS: The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old.

RESULTS: A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for <1 call="" day="" or="" 95="" ci="" 0="" 69="" to="" 3="" 60="" for="" 1-4="" calls="" and="" 86="" 4="" 80="" 8805="" 5="" ors="" having="" teacher-reported="" overall="" behaviour="" problems="" across="" categories="" of="" cordless="" phone="" use="" were="" below="" 1="" close="" unity="" associations="" maternal="" cell="" with="" maternal-reported="" remained="" non-significant="" found="" the="" specific="" problem="" subscales="" p="">

CONCLUSION: Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.


Benson VS, Pirie K, Schüz J, et al. Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study. Int J Epid 2013;42:792-802.

BACKGROUND: Results from some retrospective studies suggest a possible increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma in users of mobile phones.

METHODS: The relation between mobile phone use and incidence of intracranial central nervous system (CNS) tumours and other cancers was examined in 791 710 middle-aged women in a UK prospective cohort, the Million Women Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women reported mobile phone use in 1999 to 2005 and again in 2009.

RESULTS: During 7 years' follow-up, 51 680 incident invasive cancers and 1 261 incident intracranial CNS tumours occurred. Risk among ever vs never users of mobile phones was not increased for all intracranial CNS tumours (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.90-1.14, P = 0.82), for specified CNS tumour types nor for cancer at 18 other specified sites. For long-term users compared with never users, there was no appreciable association for glioma (10+ years: RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.55-1.10, P = 0.16) or meningioma (10+ years: RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.66-1.84, P = 0.71). For acoustic neuroma, there was an increase in risk with long term use vs never use (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, mobile phone use was not associated with increased incidence of glioma, meningioma or non-CNS cancers.


Frei P, Poulsen AH, Johansen C, Olsen JH, Steding-Jessen M, Schüz J. Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study. BMJ 2011;19:343. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6387.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: All Danes aged ≥ 30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income.

RESULTS: 358,403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10,729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use--that is, ≥ 13 years of subscription--the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥ 10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour--that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head.

CONCLUSIONS: In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association.


Aydin D, Feychting M, Schüz J, ja 14 muuta. Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumors in Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Case–Control Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103:1–13.

CEFALO is a multicenter case–control study conducted in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Switzerland that includes all children and adolescents aged 7–19 years who were diagnosed with a brain tumor between 2004 and 2008. We conducted interviews, in person, with 352 case patients (participation rate: 83%) and 646 control subjects (participation rate: 71%) and their parents. Control subjects were randomly selected from population registries and matched by age, sex, and geographical region. We asked about mobile phone use and included mobile phone operator records when available.

Regular users of mobile phones were not statistically significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with brain tumors compared with nonusers. Children who started to use mobile phones at least 5 years ago were not at increased risk compared with those who had never regularly used mobile phones. In a subset of study participants for whom operator recorded data were available, brain tumor risk was related to the time elapsed since the mobile phone subscription was started but not to amount of use. No increased risk of brain tumors was observed for brain areas receiving the highest amount of exposure.

The absence of an exposure–response relationship either in terms of the amount of mobile phone use or by localization of the brain tumor argues against a causal association.

 


Larjavaara S, Schüz J, Swerdlow A, Feychting M, Johansen C, Lagorio S, Tynes T, Klaeboe L, Tonjer SR, Blettner M, Berg-Beckhoff G, Schlehofer B, Schoemaker M, Britton J, Mäntylä R, Lönn S, Ahlbom A, Flodmark O, Lilja A, Martini S, Rastelli E, Vidiri A, Kähärä V, Raitanen J, Heinävaara S, Auvinen A. Location of gliomas in relation to mobile telephone use: a case-case and case-specular analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:2-11. Epub 2011 May 24.


The energy absorbed from the radio-frequency fields of mobile telephones depends strongly on distance from the source. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate whether gliomas occur preferentially in the areas of the brain having the highest radio-frequency exposure. The authors used 2 approaches: In a case-case analysis, tumor locations were compared with varying exposure levels; in a case-specular analysis, a hypothetical reference location was assigned for each glioma, and the distances from the actual and specular locations to the handset were compared.
The study included 888 gliomas from 7 European countries (2000-2004), with tumor midpoints defined on a 3-dimensional grid based on radiologic images. The case-case analyses were carried out using unconditional logistic regression, whereas in the case-specular analysis, conditional logistic regression was used. In the case-case analyses, tumors were located closest to the source of exposure among never-regular and contralateral users, but not statistically significantly. In the case-specular analysis, the mean distances between exposure source and location were similar for cases and speculars. These results do not suggest that gliomas in mobile phone users are preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest radio-frequency fields from mobile phones.

Cardis E et al. The INTERPHONE Study Group. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;39:675-964.

Interphone-tutkimus aloitettiin 13 maassa vuonna 2000. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, lisääkö matkapuhelimen käyttö riskiä neljään eri pään alueen kasvaintyyppiin. Näitä ovat aivokasvaimista hyvänlaatuinen meningeooma ja pahanlaatuinen gliooma sekä kuulohermon ja korvasylkihermon kasvaimet. Hanketta koordinoi Maailman terveysjärjestön WHO:n kansainvälinen syöväntutkimuskeskus IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer).

Suomesta hankkeeseen osallistuivat Säteilyturvakeskus (STUK) ja Tampereen yliopiston Terveystieteen laitos. Tutkimuksessa oli mukana noin 2700 glioomaan ja noin 2400 meningeoomaan sairastunutta potilasta ja vertailuryhmänä noin 5500 tervettä henkilöä. Yli puolet kaikista tutkimukseen osallistuneista käytti matkapuhelinta. Vähintään kymmenen vuotta matkapuhelinta käyttäneitä oli noin 350, ja sinä aikana matkapuhelimeen puhuttiin keskimäärin sata tuntia. Suomen osuus Interphone-tutkimuksesta ja myös pääosa muiden maiden osatutkimuksista on julkaistu jo aikaisemmin.

Tulosten mukaan matkapuhelimen käyttäjillä näyttää olevan muita alhaisempi aivokasvainten riski. Tämä selittyy pääosin sillä, että matkapuhelimen käyttäjät osallistuivat tutkimukseen muita innokkaammin. Yli kymmenen vuotta matkapuhelinta käyttäneillä ei ollut suurempaa riskiä saada kasvainta kuin lyhyemmän aikaa käyttäneillä. Kasvainten riski ei liittynyt myöskään siihen, kummalla puolella päätä matkapuhelinta oli enimmäkseen pidetty. Aivokasvainten vaara ei tulosten mukaan liity suoraan matkapuhelimella puhuttuun aikaan, kun tarkastellaan puheluiden yhteen laskettua kestoa. Sen sijaan sillä kymmenenneksellä, joka kertoi puhuneensa kännykkään yli 1600 tuntia, oli viite suurentuneesta riskistä. Tämä kuitenkin liittyi ensisijaisesti puhelimen käyttöön viimeisen viiden vuoden aikana.



Lahkola A, Salminen T,  Raitanen J, Heinävaara S, Schoemaker MJ, Collatz Christensen H, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, Swerdlow AJ, Tynes T, Auvinen A. Meningioma and mobile phone use - an international collaborative case-control study in five North European countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 2008; 37(6): 1304-1313.

Tutkimuksessa oli mukana 1209 meningeoomaan sairastunutta henkilöä (tapaukset) ja 3299 iän, sukupuolen, alueen ja maan suhteen kaltaistettua tervettä vertailuhenkilöä (verrokit). Tutkimuksen henkilömäärä on suurempi kuin missään muussa tähän mennessä julkaistussa, samaa aihetta käsitelleessä tutkimuksessa. Tutkimukseen osallistuneet tapaukset ja verrokit olivat 18–69 -vuotiaita ja aineisto kerättiin vuosien 2000 ja 2004 välisenä aikana tehdyillä henkilökohtaisilla haastatteluilla, joissa kerättiin yksityiskohtaisia tietoja matkapuhelimen käytöstä.

Matkapuhelimen käyttöä tutkittiin käyttäen useita eri altistusmuuttujia, eikä sen havaittu olevan yhteydessä lisääntyneeseen meningeooman riskiin. Säännölliseen matkapuhelimen käyttöön, käytön kestoon, puhelujen kokonaislukumääriin tai puhelujen kokonaiskestoon ei liittynyt suurentunutta riskiä, kun aineistoa tarkasteltiin kokonaisuutena. Riskin ei havaittu lisääntyneen myöskään puhelinverkon (NMT/GSM), iän tai sukupuolen mukaan tehdyissä tarkasteluissa.

Tutkimus ei tue väitettä, että matkapuhelimen käyttö suurentaisi meningeooman riskiä. Koska matkapuhelimen käytön arviointi perustui tutkimushenkilöiden antamiin tietoihin puhelimen käytöstä, joka oli tapahtunut joissain tapauksissa jopa yli kymmenen vuotta ennen haastatteluhetkeä, tutkimukseen saattaa sisältyä muistiharhan aiheuttamaa epävarmuutta.

 


Cardis E, Richardson L, Deltour I, Armstrong B, ja 44 muuta. The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population. Eur J Epidemiol 2007;22: 647–664.

The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case–control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case–control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results.

more information: http://www.rfcom.ca/programs/interphone.shtml

 


Lahkola A, Auvinen A, Raitanen J, Schoemaker MJ, Collatz Christensen H, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L,Lönn S, Swerdlow AJ, Tynes T, Salminen T. Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in five North European countries. International Journal of Cancer 2007; 120: 1769-1775.

Tutkimus matkapuhelimen käytön yhteydestä pahanlaatuisen aivokasvaimen, gliooman, riskiin tehtiin Tanskassa, Suomessa, Norjassa, Ruotsissa ja Englannissa. Tutkimuksen mukaan matkapuhelimen käyttäjillä ei ole suurentunutta vaaraa saada gliooma.

Matkapuhelimen säännöllinen käyttö, käytön kesto tai puheluiden yhteenlaskettu määrä eivät vaikuttaneet sairastumisriskiin. Ainoa viite matkapuhelimen mahdollisesta vaikutuksesta todettiin niiden joukossa, jotka olivat käyttäneet matkapuhelinta ainakin 10 vuotta. Heillä oli hieman useammin kasvain samalla puolella päätä, jolla he olivat matkapuhelinta yleensä pitäneet. Tiedot puhelimen käytöstä kerättiin henkilökohtaisilla haastatteluilla. Muistamiseen liittyy aina virhemahdollisuus, mikä aiheuttaa epävarmuutta tuloksiin.

Eri maiden tutkimusaineisto analysoitiin Säteilyturvakeskuksessa (STUK). Tutkimuksen suomalaisia rahoittajia olivat muun muassa Emil Aaltosen Säätiö, Suomen Akatemia sekä Kansanterveyden tutkijakoulu (Academy of Finland and Doctoral Programs for Public Health, DPPH).

Tutkimukseen osallistui vuosina 2000–2004 yhteensä 1521 glioomaan sairastunutta ja 3301 tervettä vertailuhenkilöä. Yli 10 vuotta matkapuhelinta käyttäneitä oli enemmän (222) kuin aiemmissa tutkimuksissa.

 


Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, Salminen T, Tynes T. Medical history, cigarette smoking and risk of acoustic neuroma: An international case-control study. International Journal of Cancer 2006; 120 (1): 103–110.

Kansainvälisen aivokasvaintutkimuksen osana selvitettiin kuulohermokasvainten elintapoihin liittyviä riskitekijöitä pohjoismais-englantilaisesta aineistosta.

Elintapoja koskevat tiedot kerättiin haastattelemalla 563 tapaukselta ja 2600 verrokilta.

Suurentunut aivokasvainten riski liittyi epilepsiaan, aiempiin raskauksiin ja nykyiseen tupakointiin. Allergiat, aiemmat päävammat ja varhaislapsuuden tekijät eivät olleet yhteydessä kuulohermon kasvainten riskiin.

  


Auvinen A, Hietanen M, Luukkonen R, Koskela R-S. Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 356-359.

Background. Possible risk of cancer associated with use of cellular telephones has lately been a subject of public debate.

Methods. We conducted a register-based, case-control study on cellular phone use and cancer. The study subjects were all cases of brain tumor (N = 398) and salivary gland cancer (N = 34) diagnosed in Finland in 1996, with five controls per case.

Results. Cellular phone use was not associated with brain tumors or salivary gland cancers overall, but there was a weak association between gliomas and analog cellular phones.

Conclusions. A register-based approach has limited value in risk assessment of cellular phone use owing to lack of information on exposure.

 


Joachim Schüz, Gunhild Waldemar, Jørgen H. Olsen, Christoffer Johansen. Risks for Central Nervous System Diseases among Mobile Phone Subscribers: A Danish Retrospective Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4389.

Hermoston sairauksien ilmaantuvuutta on selvitetty tanskalaisessa matkapuhelimen käyttäjien seurantatutkimuksessa.

Tutkimus kattoi 420,000 henkilöä (joista 85% miehiä), joilla oli ollut matkapuhelinliittymä ennen vuotta 1995. Sairauksien ilmaantuvuutta koskevat tiedot vuoden 2003 loppuun asti saatiin koko maan kattavan hoitoilmoitusrekisterin kautta.

Matkapuhelimen käyttäjillä oli hieman muuta väestöä enemmän sairaalahoitojaksoja huimauksen ja päänsäryn vuoksi. Sen sijaan dementian vuoksi heillä oli sairaalahoitoa muuta väestöä vähemmän. Hermoston rappeumasairauksien (kuten ALS ja MS-tauti) ja epilepsian suhteen he eivät eronneet muusta väestöstä.

Tulokset eivät osoita matkapuhelimen käytön lisäävän hermoston sairauksien riskiä. Varhain matkapuhelimen käytön aloittaneet olivat ilmeisesti keskimääräistä paremmin koulutettuja ja korkeamman tulotason omaavia, mikä vaikeuttaa vertailua koko väestön sairastuvuuteen.